Diacetyl and it's background

Concerns around Diacetyl started with a popcorn factory worker who developed "popcorn lung" which causes difficulty breathing. Obviously a popcorn factory worker is exposed to extremely large quantities of this chemical every day. Later researches however confirmed the presence of diacetyl and other high priority flavoring chemicals in flavored e-cigarettes.

Due to the associations between diacetyl, bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases amongst workers inhaling heated vapors containing diacetyl, urgent action was recommended to further evaluate the extent of this new exposure to diacetyl and related flavoring compounds in e-cigarettes.

Acetyl Propionyl and Acetoin are also member of Diketones; substitutes that arrived after the initial concerns of Diacetyl. Researches since suggest that these chemicals also can contain or convert themselves to Diacetyl. Although these are not as dangerous as Diacetyl, they are still not considered to be as safe as an e-juice without them. The fact that recent studies show that still plenty of E-liquids on the market were found containing Diacetyl or Acetoin, raises some concerns.

Diacetyl is also contained in traditional cigarettes in even much greater quantities than what is in those E-liquids with Diacetyl added. Even though is less than the amount contained in traditional cigarettes, it is still over the amount of consumption that is considered safe for inhaling.

Despite tremendous amount of time, development and cost; we, at Mystic Vapor Ltd have been working hard to get rid of these chemicals from our e-liquids. Thus, all Mystic Juice® are completely Diacetyl, Acetyl Propionyl, and Acetoin FREE.

European Union Regulations
The European Commission has declared diacetyl is legal for use as a flavouring substance in all EU states. As a diketone, diacetyl is included in the EU's flavouring classification Flavouring Group Evaluation 11. A Scientific Panel of the EU Commission evaluated six flavouring substances (not including diacetyl) from FGE.11 in 2004. As part of this study, the panel reviewed available studies on several other flavourings in FGE.11, including diacetyl. Based on the available data, the panel reiterated the finding that there were no safety concerns for diacetyl's use as a flavouring.

In 2007, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the EU's food safety regulatory body, stated its scientific panel on food additives and flavourings (AFC) was evaluating diacetyl along with other flavourings as part of a larger study. "The experts of the EFSA AFC panel and its working group on food additives will look at this issue to see if new scientific evidence is available that may require further actions. If the experts conclude that consumer exposure to diacetyl can reach levels well above those considered as safe and, that a possible health risk for consumers cannot be excluded when inhaling diacetyl, EFSA will give priority to the re-evaluation of this substance and provide detailed scientific advice."

A 2014 publication found that diacetyl was present in samples of many sweet-flavoured electronic cigarette liquids, though at levels 100 times lower than that of tobacco smoke. According to that research, diacetyl is approved for food use, but is associated with respiratory disease when inhaled. The study concluded that diacetyl is an avoidable risk for electronic cigarette liquid, and measures could be taken by the industry to eliminate its usage, without limiting availability of flavors. In 2015, another test of 51 purpose-selected liquids found diacetyl at trace levels or higher in 39 of the liquids.

Diketones as chemicals

- Diacetyl - C4H6O2 (Biacetyl; 2,3-Butandion; 2,3-Butanedione; Butane-2,3-dione)diacetyl_C4H6O2

Diacetyl is a yellow/green liquid with an intensely buttery flavor. It is a vicinal diketone (two C=O groups, side-by-side) with the molecular formula C4H6O2.

Diacetyl occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages and is added to some foods to impart its buttery flavor. Diacetyl is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 2,3-butanediol. Acetoin is an intermediate. It was the first chemical amongst diketones that was found to possibly harmful in large doses.

acetoin_C4H8O2_v2

- Acetoin - C4H8O2 (3-hydroxybutanone, acetyl methyl carbinol)
Acetoin is a colorless or pale yellow to green yellow liquid with a pleasant, buttery odor. Acetoin is a chiral molecule.

Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the compounds giving butter its characteristic flavor. Because of this, manufacturers of partially hydrogenated oils typically add acetoin and diacetyl (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to the final product, which would otherwise be tasteless. Acetoin is used as a food flavoring (in baked goods) and as a fragrance. It can be found in apples, butter, yogurt, asparagus, blackcurrants, blackberry, wheat, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cantaloupe. In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, acetoin was listed as one of the 599 additives to cigarettes.

2,3-pentanedione
- Acetylpropionyl - C5H8O2 (2,3-pentanedione; Pentane-2,3-dione; 600-14-6; Acetyl propionyl; 2,3-Pentadione)
Acetylpropionyl is an organic compound, more specifically a diketone. It is a structural isomer of acetylacetone (2,4-pentanedione).

As a flavoring agent, it is a controversial ingredient in some e-liquid products for use with electronic cigarettes. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , inhalation of acetylpropionyl causes respiratory tract epithelial damage and fibrosis to lungs in animal studies. It also causes genetic changes in the animals' brains. Acetylpropionyl was found to cause both intraluminal and intramural fibrotic airway lesions in rats. One study of the composition of 159 different e-liquid products, performed by Farsalinos et al., concluded that the use of acetylpropionyl and diacetyl in E-liquids represents an avoidable risk, and additionally that proper measures should be taken by E-liquid manufacturers and flavoring suppliers to eliminate these hazards from the products.

After all what Mystic Juice® offers is a much safer and healthier alternative to smoking aiming towards a nicotine free life. Do not you agree?

References
Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/
Chemspider: http://www.chemspider.com/